Skip to main content

Full text of "Mary Cassatt"

See other formats


MARY CASSATT 

by 

MARGARET BREUNING 







S3. 00 



MARY 
CASSATT 



by 



MARGARET BREUNING 



M.irv Cassatt, who has only received recognition 

as one of our foremost artists, presents the anomaly 

of being a thorough American, although spending 

I the greater part of her life in Paris, and acquiring 

Her distinctive style while under French influences. 

►■Reversing the old legend of Antaeus, who received 

■new strength each time that he touched his native 

Rarth, Miss Cassatt only discovered her innate 

powers when she was in a foreign land. 

[Pictures found only in American collections are in 
khis monograph, the first of its kind ever to be 
published. The eight reproductions in full-color 
and the forty-eight black and white half-tone litho- 
graphs exhibited in this volume are the final choice 
Bade from the hundreds of works of art owned by 
famous private collectors and institutions in Amer- 
ica. Many of them have never been reproduced 
before. 

Margaret Breuning, now contributing critic for 
"The Art Digest," was formerly the "New York 
Post's" and the "Journal- American's" art critic. 
American born, her background includes many 
years abroad and study in Europe's great museums. 

Thanks to the enthusiastic co-operation of The 
Brooklyn Museum, New York, the Museum of 
Fine Arts, Boston, the Art Institute of Chicago, the 
Corcoran Gallery of Art, the Detroit Institute of 
Arts, Durand-Ruel, New York, the Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, The National Gallery of Art, 

( ( onlimittl on buck flap ) 



Published by 
THE HYPERION PRESS 

Distributed h) 
DUELL, SLOAN and PEARCE 

New York 






Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Metropolitan New York Library Council - METRO 



http://archive.org/details/marycassattOObreu 




THE MORNING TOILET 1886 Oil 29> 2 "x24H' 

National Gallery of Art y Washington, D. C. Chester Dale Collection [Loan) 



MARY 



CASSATT 



by 



MARGARET BREUNING 



Property of 
The HiUa von Rebay Foundation 



Published by 
THE HYPERION PRESS 

Distributed by 

DUELL, SLOAN and PEARCE 
NEW YORK 



THIS VOI .IMF., 

ONE OF THE HYPERION ART MONOGRAPHS 

WAS EDITED BY AIMEE CRANK 

AND PUBLISHED IN MCMXLIV, FDR 

THE HYPERION PRESS 



Printed in the United States or America 
Copyright 1944 by The Hyperion Press, New York. 



MARY CASSATT 



by 
MARGARET BREUNING 



MAR\ CAS 
recognii 



ary CASSATT, who has only recently received 
ition as one ot our foremost artists, 
presents the anomaly of being a thorough 
American, although spending the greater part of her 
lite in Paris, and acquiring her distinctive style while 
under French influences. Reversing the old legend of 
Anta-us, who received new strength each time that he 
touched his native earth, Miss Cassatt only discovered 
her innate powers when she was in a foreign land. 

Mary Cassatt was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1848. While still a young child she visited 
Paris with her parents, remaining there for five years. 
On her return, the family settled in Philadelphia. Here 
with wealth and social prestige as her environment, she 
might well have become a conventional young lady of 
the fashionable world. However, while still young, she 
felt art to be her metier and, also, recognized that while 
in America she would obtain small chance of develop- 
ment in such a career. It was a moment of low ebb for 
Art in this country. Xot only did art instruction con- 
sist principally of drawing from casts, but there was no 
opportunity to see great works of art as incentive and 
inspiration. The majority of contemporary artists fled 
to Europe, particularly to Paris, where soon enrolled in 
some famous atelier, conducted by an Academic master, 
they became oblivious of the new movements of the art 
world around them and were thoroughly inoculated with 
the Academic virus. 

Miss Cassatt's procedure was in complete contrast 
to this accepted performance. When she left with mem- 



bers of her family for Europe she sought no formal 
teaching, but began that long, arduous course <.t self- 
instruction which was to culminate in her brilliant, 
original ideology of expression. 

She first visited Italy, where she studied Parmigiano 
and Corregio, whose influence may be felt in some of her 
earliest paintings. After eight months in Italy, she 
visited Spain and at the Prado fell under the spell of 
Rubens. It was, doubtless, an overwhelming experience 




HEAD IN PROFILE AND SMALLER FACE 
Dry-point II'.' x 1 ' 
Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 



for a young artist of great sensibility. Intensive study 
i>f his work led her to leave Madrid and go to Antwerp 
to see more of his paintings. If in one of her first can- 
vases — two young girls throwing bonbons at the 
Carnival — there are traces of the peculiar charm and 
subtlety of Corregio, in other early pictures, such as that 
of bullfighters and the head of a young girl, executed at 
Rome, the influence of Rubens is evident. 

Once in Paris, where she took up her residence with 
her family, with none of the financial worries that 
usually burden artists at the outset of their career, she 
entered no atelier or attempted any affiliation with the 
official Academic art then dominant. It is true that at 
the insistence of her family, she was obliged to enter 
the studio of Charles Chaplin, a prominent artist of the 
Academic School, but this connection was as brief as 
undesired by the young artist. She soon allied herself 
with the most unpopular, the most derided, the most 
misunderstood movement of the day, Impressionism. 
Emphasis should be laid on the fact that it was the work 
of these artists which attracted her and not personal 
relations, for at the time of this decision she was not 
acquainted with any of them. Rather she was drawn 
to their work by affinities of taste and sensitive percep- 
tion. This independence of spirit and boldness of judg- 
ment are characteristics that marked her whole life. 
That a young, inexperienced girl with no prompting 
should decide that she disliked the conventions of the 
art then popular and discover for herself in the unappre- 
ciated work of the Impressionists exactly the qualities 
which appealed to her reveals unusual powers of dis- 
cernment. It was after this momentous decision that 
she declared that she "began to live." 

The work of Degas especially attracted her. Before 
she had met him she had bought one of his pastels and 
some of his small paintings. She became his disciple, 
never his pupil, making a patient and absorbing study 
of his work — then generally despised; and in it dis- 
covered the classical characteristics to be felt in all great 
French art. For Degas, stemming from Ingres and his 
classical tradition, can never be really reckoned as one 
oi the Impressionists. Few people shared this enthusi- 
asm for Degas, but her clarity of judgment discerned 
in the originality of his approach to art and in the deli- 
cacy of his visual perceptions qualities that awakened 

6 




THE BONNET Dry-point 7y s "xS%" 

Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 

her admiration and respect. Later, when she became 
acquainted with him, she received his criticism and 
suggestions gratefully. A curious professional rapport 
existed between them based not on personal relations. 

She began to etch early as discipline, for the line on 
the copper plate with no adventitious charms of color 
reveals the artist's weakness or strength of draftsman- 
ship. Often she made preparatory studies for paintings 
in etchings. Through this self-imposed discipline, her 
line became virile, yet sensitive, with almost impercepti- 
ble modulations of depth which imparted animation 
to forms and gave lightness to the strength of her 
design. When Degas first viewed some of her work, 
although by no means a gracious critic, he was surprised 
into exclaiming, "I do not admit that a woman can draw 
so well." 

Studying her drawings and prints, it is not difficult 
to realize her untiring and passionate research for the 
correspondence of contours, for the exact notations of 
natural forms. If the etchings, made as studies for later 
canvases are compared with these later paintings, the 
greater simplicity of the finished work is obvious. 



Factual veracity is still apparent, but there is also a 
definite generalization, an approach to abstract, ^co- 
metrical design. Moreover, without any sacrifice of 
carefully observed form, a greater ease and fluency , an 
elegance of expression continued to gain in her work. 

In the comparatively tew lithographs which she exe 

CUted, something of the influence of Holbein ma> be 
distinguished, as it may be occasionally in her other 
work. 

Miss Cassatt's earl] absorption in realism is marked. 
Not only did she Study Degas, but Manet and Courbet, 
as well — in fact, often preferring Courbet to Manet 
however brutal his expression frequently was at times, 
because of his complete sincerity. It is not improbable 
that in her determined search tor perfection ot handling, 
she telt sympathy with Courbet's emphasis on good 
workmanship. If the influence of Degas is telt in such a 
canvas as Woman Reading in Garden, with its decora- 
tive arabesque ot design, its almost imperceptible blend- 
ing ot color, its pigment that seems to flow in conform- 
ity with the tones it depicts, in such a canvas as Woman 
in Black y there is no escaping Manet. Like all three of 
these artists. Miss Cassatt was interested in contempo- 
rary subject matter. In addition, the reaction making 
itselt telt against the meretricious facility and banality 
of the Academic pseudo-classicism, was being echoed 
in literature in the new movement of realism. Huysmans 
and Zola, frank exponents of realism, made a strong 
appeal to her at this time, as she often confessed in 
later life. 

Undoubtedly, there were other motives which turned 
the young artist to her ardent pursuit of realism. It 
seems evident that she wished to avoid any semblance 
of that sentimentality, which then was considered char- 
acteristic of a woman's art. Strength, not sweetness, 
truth, not romance were her objectives from the outset. 
She had no desire to become a "lady painter;" she never 
merited that ignominious appellation. Her own nature, 
self-contained, fastidious, contemptuous of the facile 
was consonant with realism. 

The next phase ot Miss Cassatt's work came through 
contact with Japanese art, which had already influenced 
the Impressionists. She was desirous of gaining, not so 
much the sense of fugitive movement that Degas derived 
from this art, as its elimination of all but essentials. 



The notan of Japanese prints, that apparently unswe- 
Riatic Spotting o( dark and light masses, which are in 
reality artfully and subtly balanced for .ill their apparent 
irregularity] fostered exquisite adjustment of tones and 
highly decorative patterns. \ further appeal lay in the 
high horizons and decentralized compositions of these 
prints suggesting an escape from conventional and 
accepted formulas ot design. In the colored dry-point, 

Woman Bathing, she reveals her ability to adapt this 
"off-center" type of design to her own conceptions. 
At times, in her early adaptions of Japanese methods, 
the paring down of her subject to its barest essentials 
results, perhaps, in too great explicitness of expression 
lacking the completeness of esthetic content that she 
finally secured in all her work. 

Her choice of theme, which she never abandoned, 
the mother and child motive although executing pot 
traits of her family and intimate circle as well as scenes 
of the life about her, may seem at variance with her 
attitude towards art. But these mothers which she 
represents are no starry-eyed Madonnas gazing worship- 




YOUNG GIRL WITH BOS' SET 
c. 1900 Lithograph in bistre 20 "a" x U 
Courtesy oj The Brooklyn Museum, Xew York 



fully at their children, but healthy young women taking 
delight in the charms of" the young lives entrusted to 
them. She sought no symbolism but the poignant ex- 
pression of the relation between mother and child, the 
Affecting contrast between the mature figure and the 
immaturity of childhood. The physical basis as well as 
the psychological basis of this relation is stressed with 
an objectivity that reflected her own nature. 

It is, moreover, an objectivity in harmony with the 
relentless logic of the French viewpoint. As she often 
related, she had a remote French ancestry so that some- 
thing of the Gallic strain may have persisted in her tem- 
perament. 

When one realizes that the majority of these children 
are scarcely more than infants, it is remarkable how 
much characterization she has given them. These young 
creatures, whose features are hardly formed, or whose 
personalities are as yet undefined are endowed not only 
with childish grace of gesture and vivacity of move- 
ment, but also with an unescapable suggestion of char- 
acter. Keen observation and penetrating psychological 
insight are responsible for her representations of chil- 
dren in which the soundness of plastic form, exquisite 
textures of childish flesh, irrepressible vitality are no 
more apparent than this hint of dawning powers. Often 




CHILD'S HEAD Colored crayon 11 Jf x 13 V 2 " 

The Art Institute of Chicago, Carter II. Harrison Gift 

S 



the mother is sacrificed in the interest of this revelation 
of childhood, but the group is always firmly integrated 
into sound design and enveloped in an ambience of 
atmosphere. It is not an anecdotal appeal which gives 
such interest to these themes, but the complete develop- 
ment of a conception where the idea and its expression 
are one. 

It is in her prints, undoubtedly, that the artist's 
gifts are most marked, where it is impressive to observe 
the virility of her line, at once delicate and precise, the 
balance of the large simplified planes made piquant by 
the sharp contrasts of linear pattern. Her technical 
performance in these prints is no less than astonishing. 
Varying her work from pure etching to dry-point, she 
mastered a technique absolutely unique in the practice 
of color-printing. In these color prints^ an aquatint 
grain was applied to the plate in fine-grained, light tones 
to which the colored inks adhered closely, then outlines 
were drawn in dry-point. At first she had the assistance 
of a professional printer in the work, but soon became 
entirely proficient in the exacting process, producing 
some of her finest prints by this method. The brilliance 
of color, the concentration on essentials, the breadth 
of design and piquancy of linear pattern mark, perhaps, 
her finest achievement. Through Japanese influence she 
acquired the effective foreshortening of figures and the 
exotic flavor of "off-center" design, but the breadth 
of the conceptions and the felicity of their expression 
are entirely due to the artist's originality and her refine- 
ment of perception. 

Although her color prints reveal her inventiveness 
and distinction in their enchanting color patterns and 
her paintings and pastels show that she acquired a 
broader handling of brushwork with greater depth of 
color than most of her fellow Impressionists, she was 
from the first distrustful of color. She feared its tempta- 
tion to hide soundness of modelling and of giving super- 
ficial charm rather than totality of effect. But as her 
technical mastery grew in all her chosen mediums, she 
achieved brilliancy with no suggestion of mere facility 
or of letting down of her integrity of draftsmanship. 
The pastel, Little Girl With Dog, although actually lush 
in its flowing color, reveals how relentlessly she sought 
beneath the charm of surface the soundness of form and 
substance and the truth of physical gesture. 



Miss (.'assart was always self-critical. In spite of the 
fact that she exhibited with the Impressionists | tew 
years after her arrival in Paris, it was not until 1891 
that she felt read) to hold a one man show a period 
of seventeen years. An incident which illustrates how 
t'ar she was t'rom wishing to assert herself occurred when 
she showed an early painting to her friend, Mrs. Have 
meyer. It was the portrait of one of her relatives, which 
she, herself", considered both a good portrait and a good 
picture but which met with no approval from the sitter 
or her family. It is the delightful portrait, Lady at the 
Tea Table i in which the deep masses of color in the dress 
are so arrestingly contrasted with the delicate modelling 
of' the head and the pla\ oi ga\ colors in the tea service. 
Mrs. Havemeyer realizing Miss Cassatt's disappoint- 
ment in the reception of this picture, insisted on the 
exhibition of'the canvas with the result that both the 
Luxembourg and the Petit Palais were desirous of secur- 
ing it. Later, however, the artist presented it to the 
Metropolitan Museum in New York, wondering depre- 

ngly if such a gift were worth while when she "was 
so little known at home." 

Miss Cassatt's relations with the American art world 
could hardly be considered felicitous. In 1879 she sent 
two paintings to the Society of American Artists in New 
York — -probably, the first Impressionist pictures to be 
shown in this country. The criticism on these works was 
far from favorable. She accepted the invitation to join 
this Society, but did not send another canvas to them 
for ten years. Yet her influence on American art was 
far from negligible. Travelling through Italy, Spain 
and Flanders with the Havemeyer family in search of 
pictures, her impeccable taste is in large measure respon- 
sible for the formation of the splendid Havemeyer Col- 
lection, which not only reached America, but through 
many of its choicest items forms an important part of 
the present collection of French art in the Metropolitan 
Museum. 

It is almost impossible to chronicle Miss Cassatt's 
life except in terms of her work. The position in society 
to which the distinction of her family and her wealth 
entitled her, did not interest her. In her passionate, 
almost fanatical, devotion to her work, her life may 
well be summed up. She went to her studio at eight 
o'clock in the morning remaining there until light failed 



A 


t 




L 










% / 






~ 



///•..//) OF .1 UOMAN Pastel 12" x 12" 

Courtesy 0/ The City Art Museum, St. Louis 

her, then devoted her evenings to graphic work. \ 
far as her associations were concerned, she led much the 
same life that she would have pursued as an artist in 
America. The life of Paris surged about her, but scarcely 
touched her. She became acquainted with the artists 
of the Impressionist group and retained an interest in 
her little circle of friends in Philadelphia. One or two 
brief trips to America, her journeyings with the Have- 
meyers and a visit to Egypt were the only diversions 
she allowed herself from her incessant application to 
her chosen work. Fortunately, her physique was as 
rugged as her will was strong. Not until her late years 
when eyesight failed her did she lay down brush and 
needle. 

Although not seeking them, many honors came to 
her. After her first showing of oils and dry-points, she 
held a large and more varied exhibition of her works two 
years later. In 1904, she was made a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor and in the same year refused the 
N. W. Harris prize, awarded her by the Art Institute of 
Chicago. In 19 10 she was elected as Associate Member 
of the National Academy of Design and in 1914 was pre- 
sented with the Gold Medal of the Pennsylvania Mu- 
seum of the Fine Arts — -her acceptance of this honor 
is the only instance of this kind. Her works were ac- 




ELSA'S CHILD SMILING 

1898 Dry-point \6%" x\\%" 

Courtesy of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 

quired by the Luxembourg Museum and by private 
collectors in France, while in America they appeared 
in all important public collections. 

During the latter part of her life, she lived at her 



Chateau Beaufresne, at Mesnil-Theribus, near Beauvais, 
where an impairment of her vision increased to almost 
complete blindness. The loss of relatives and friends 
shadowed her life, already isolated, and brought home 
to her the loneliness of a stranger in a strange land. 

Her mind remained keen and active, her interests 
broad. Her personal distinction never deserted her nor 
her imperious will. The friends who visited her in those 
last years have given ample testimony to her unrelent- 
ing passion for art. They all record her conviction that 
American artists no longer needed to seek Paris for in- 
struction nor the opportunity to study the great masters; 
such an era was closed with the improved methods of 
teaching in American schools and the opening of great 
public collections. America, she felt, should now be the 
training ground for American artists. 

On June 19, 1926, she died at the age q{ eighty-one, 
having by her single-minded devotion to art and by the 
importance of her achievement raised the position of a 
woman artist to the high level that no one had previ- 
ously considered possible. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BOOKS 

Mary Cassatt, un Peintre des Enfants et des Meres, by Achille Segard, 
Ollendorff Paris, 1913. 

Mary Cassatt, by Edith Valerio, G. Cres et Cie., Paris, 1930. 

Edward Alden Jewell and Aimee Crane, The French Impression- 
ists, The Hyperion Press, New York, 1944. 

MONOGRAPH 

Mary Cassatt, by Forbes Watson, in the American Artists Series, 
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, [932. 

MAGAZINES 

Miss Cassatt, by V. R. Beurdeley, I. 'Art dans les Deux Mondes, 
November 22, 1N90. 

Young American Women in Art, by Frank Linstow White, Frank 
I eslie'i Popular Monthly, November, 1893. 

Fern tries Artistes— Un Peintre de L' F.nfance — Mary Cassatt, by 
Guctavc Geffrey, Lea Modes, vol. 4, Feb., 1904, pp. 4.-11. 



Artistes Contemporanei — Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, by Vittorio 
Pica, Emporium, vol. 26, July, 1907, pp. 3, 11-16. 

Quelques Notes sur les Peintres Americains, by Walter Pach, Gazettes 
des Beaux Arts, 4th period, vol. 51, Oct. 1909, p. 334. 

Mother and Child — The Theme as Developed in the Art of Marv 
Cassatt, Good Housekeeping Magazine, vol. 50, Feb. 1910, 
pp. 141-146. 

Marv Cassatt's Achievement: Its Value to the World of Art, Crafts- 
man, vol. 19, March, 191 1, pp. 540-546. 

Mary Cassatt, by Andre Mellerio, L'Art les Artistes, vol. 12, 191 1, 
pp. 69-75. 

Marv Cassatt and Her Work, by Clara McChesney, Arts and Deco- 
ration, vol. 3, 1913, pp. 265-267. 

Some Memories of Mary Cassatt, by George Biddle, The Arts, New 
York, vol. 10, August, 1926, pp. 107-111. 

In Retro /> rt — Mary Cassatt, by Dorothy Grafly, American Maga- 
zine of Art, vol. iS, June, 1927, pp. 305-312. 

La Collection flavemever et Miss Cassatt, by Arsene Alexandre, La 
Renaissance, vol. 13, Feb. 1930, pp. 51-56. 



IO 




GIRL WITH DOG 



irtcsy of Durand-Rucl, New York 



1908 Pastel 20,"xK,'_," 




( . tRESSE EM'. tNTINE Oil 33" x 17) ■>" 

The Sational Collection oj Fine /Iris, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 




YOUNG GIRL IN GREEN BONNET Oil 16 !*" x UJ 

The National Collection oj Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, Washington^ D. C. 








*; 




LADY AT THE TEA TABLE 

Courtesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York 



1885 Oil 29"x24 




THE FAMILY 



Courtesy of Durand-Ruel, Nev York 



c. 1887 Oil 32" i 



1 5 




i6 



WOM 1N WITH .1 DCX7 c. 1889 Oil 39" x 26" 

Courtesy of The Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. 





A CUP OF TEA 1880 Oil 25 ' 2 " x 36 ! ." 

Courtesy of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 



GIRL IN BONNET Oil 2' 

Courtesv oj The Fine Arts Gallery t S,i>i I) 

I- 




THE FITTING 



is 



c. 1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 14%" x 10'^" 
Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 




THE LETTER 1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 13 5 8 "x8V' 

7*A<* Jrt Institute of Chicago, Mr. and Mrs. Martin ./. Ryerson Collection 



19 




20 



WOMAN READING IS A GARDEN 



1880 Oil 35^"x23^" 



The Art Institute of Chicago, Gift of Mrs. A. J. Beverage in Memory 0/ Delia Spencer Field 




MOTHER .1X1) CHILI) 



The Art Institute nj Chicago, Potter Palmer Collection 



1892 Pastel 29 




GARDINER GREENE HAMMOND, JR. 

Courtesy of Mrs. Esther Fiske Hammond, Santa Barbara 



1898 Pastel 21" x 27" 



11 




AFTER THE BATH P i 

Collect t of 1 land Museum of Art. Colorplate:C (cation, V. V. 




YOUNG GIRLS 



The John Herron Art Institute, Indianapolis 



Pastel 25"x2(>V' 




GIRL SEATED 



Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 



Dry-point l<H*"x6 










w ' I 



YOUNG CIRI. IN LARGE HAT 



1901 Oil 3VA"xlS%" 



Courtesy of Durand-Rucl, New York 




•*.«■* 



MOTHER y/\D CHI ED 



Courtesy of The Cincinnati Art Museum 



Oil 29" x 2 







IN THE GARDEN 



28 



1893 Pastel 28?f x23%" 



Courtesy of Miss Etta Cone, Baltimore 





HUM. IS AND CHILD DRIVING 

1881 Oil 35'i"x5P," 

The Philadelphia Museum of Art, IVilstach Collection 



THE BATH 
1892 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 12V \ 
Courtesy of Dttrand-Ruel, A n York 







JO 



THE CUP OF TEA 



1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) M%" x 10^" 
Courtesy of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 




YOUNG MOTHER SEWING 

The Metropolitan Museum oj Art, //. 0. Havemcyer Collection 



Oil 36 V' x 29" 



I' 







\ 










m&k 



V 




WOMEN AND CHILD 



32 



Courtesy of The Detroit Institute of Arts 



Pastel 26"x32" 




MOTHER J\D CHILD {The Mirror) 

Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, Neva York 



1900 Oil 28" x 2' 







COIFFURE 



34 



c. 1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 14^" x 10%' 
Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 




K OMAN BATHING 

c. 1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 14 V' x 10?^" 

Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 




STUDY FOR THE BANJO LESSON 

Courtesy of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 



c. 1895 Pastel 17" x 17" 




AT THE OPERA 



1880 Oil 31 » /' \ 2- ' /' 



Courtesy of The Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 




/ V THE TRAMWAY 
c. 1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 14^" x 10'^ 
Courtesy of The Brooklyn Museum, New York 



72 




THE TOILET 



1894 Oil 39" x 3 
The Art Institute of Chicago, Robert Alexander H'allcr Memorial Collection 







CHILDREN PLAYING IV ITU A CAT 

Courtesy of Durand-Ruel, New York 



40 



1908 Oil 31%"x39K" 




WOMAS IX BLACK 



Courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Buell /{ammrtt, Santa Barbara 



O.l 17' 



4' 




42 



MOTHER WITH TWO CHILDREN 

Courtesy of The Milch Galleries, New York 



Oil 36" x 29" 




MISS M.1RY ELLIS 



The National Gallery nj .lit, Chester Dale Collection [Loan) 



Oil 33\' x 2 



4; 




A f RSING 



44 



Courtesy of The New York Public Library 



c. 1891 Dry-point 9%" x 7" 








A/0 77//: A' ./.YD #./£V 



c. 1891 Dry-point 10 V x' 



Courtesy of The Museum oj line Arts, Boston 



4 ; 










^ 









MATERNITY 



46 



1891 Dry-point and aquatint (color) 13>£"x9' 
Courtesy of The Museum oj Fine Arts, Boston 




GIRL IS A BLUE HIT 



1908 Oil 18" x 1 ; ' 



Courtesy of Durand-Rucl, New York 







.*» 



THE LOGE 



Pastel on paper Uy 2 "xS%" 
Courtesy of The Cincinnati Art Museum, Mary II anna Collection 



w ashington, D. ( .. tin- Philadelphia Museum of 
An, ami virui.illy all the collectors in the entire 
countrj whose facilities were generously msde 
tvsilsble to the editor, ■ permsnem exhibition of 
(assaii paintingi tonus into the possession of 
esch owner of thii volume, 



RENOIR 



by 

ROSAMUND FROST 



Pierre Auguste Renoir is one of our foremost 
modern old masters. We accept his pictures, as 
we accept the great compositions of Titian and 
Poussin and Delacroix. He is now re-estimated a 
quarter century after his death. 

8 reproductions in full color 
48 black and white half-tone lithographs 
11" x 14" $3.00 



CEZANNE 



by 



EDWARD ALDEN JEWELL 



Modernism's debt to Cezanne is enormous and 
many-faceted. Cezanne it was, justly called "the 
father of Modern Art," who, before relinquishing 
his brush in death, pointed the onward way. 

8 reproductions in full color 
48 black and white half-tone lithographs 
11" x 14" S3. 00 



Published h-\ 
THE HYPERION PRESS 

Distributed by 
DUELL, SLOAN and PEAK* I 
New York